Tuesday, December 12, 2023

Use Amazon SageMaker Studio to build a RAG question answering solution with Llama 2, LangChain, and Pinecone for fast experimentation

Retrieval Augmented Era (RAG) lets you present a big language mannequin (LLM) with entry to information from exterior information sources comparable to repositories, databases, and APIs with out the necessity to fine-tune it. When utilizing generative AI for query answering, RAG allows LLMs to reply questions with essentially the most related, up-to-date info and optionally cite their information sources for verification.

A typical RAG answer for information retrieval from paperwork makes use of an embeddings mannequin to transform the information from the information sources to embeddings and shops these embeddings in a vector database. When a person asks a query, it searches the vector database and retrieves paperwork which are most just like the person’s question. Subsequent, it combines the retrieved paperwork and the person’s question in an augmented immediate that’s despatched to the LLM for textual content era. There are two fashions on this implementation: the embeddings mannequin and the LLM that generates the ultimate response.

On this publish, we reveal use Amazon SageMaker Studio to construct a RAG query answering answer.

Utilizing notebooks for RAG-based query answering

Implementing RAG sometimes entails experimenting with varied embedding fashions, vector databases, textual content era fashions, and prompts, whereas additionally debugging your code till you obtain a purposeful prototype. Amazon SageMaker provides managed Jupyter notebooks geared up with GPU cases, enabling you to quickly experiment throughout this preliminary part with out spinning up further infrastructure. There are two choices for utilizing notebooks in SageMaker. The primary possibility is quick launch notebooks obtainable by means of SageMaker Studio. In SageMaker Studio, the built-in growth atmosphere (IDE) purpose-built for ML, you’ll be able to launch notebooks that run on completely different occasion varieties and with completely different configurations, collaborate with colleagues, and entry further purpose-built options for machine studying (ML). The second possibility is utilizing a SageMaker pocket book occasion, which is a completely managed ML compute occasion working the Jupyter Pocket book app.

On this publish, we current a RAG answer that augments the mannequin’s information with further information from exterior information sources to offer extra correct responses particular to a customized area. We use a single SageMaker Studio pocket book working on an ml.g5.2xlarge occasion (1 A10G GPU) and Llama 2 7b chat hf, the fine-tuned model of Llama 2 7b, which is optimized for dialog use instances from Hugging Face Hub. We use two AWS Media & Leisure Weblog posts because the pattern exterior information, which we convert into embeddings with the BAAI/bge-small-en-v1.5 embeddings. We retailer the embeddings in Pinecone, a vector-based database that provides high-performance search and similarity matching. We additionally talk about transition from experimenting within the pocket book to deploying your fashions to SageMaker endpoints for real-time inference while you full your prototyping. The identical method can be utilized with completely different fashions and vector databases.

Answer overview

The next diagram illustrates the answer structure.

Implementing the answer consists of two high-level steps: creating the answer utilizing SageMaker Studio notebooks, and deploying the fashions for inference.

Develop the answer utilizing SageMaker Studio notebooks

Full the next steps to start out creating the answer:

  1. Load the Llama-2 7b chat mannequin from Hugging Face Hub within the pocket book.
  2. Create a PromptTemplate with LangChain and use it to create prompts on your use case.
  3. For 1–2 instance prompts, add related static textual content from exterior paperwork as immediate context and assess if the standard of the responses improves.
  4. Assuming that the standard improves, implement the RAG query answering workflow:
    • Collect the exterior paperwork that may assist the mannequin higher reply the questions in your use case.
    • Load the BGE embeddings mannequin and use it to generate embeddings of those paperwork.
    • Retailer these embeddings in a Pinecone index.
    • When a person asks a query, carry out a similarity search in Pinecone and add the content material from essentially the most comparable paperwork to the immediate’s context.

Deploy the fashions to SageMaker for inference at scale

Whenever you hit your efficiency targets, you’ll be able to deploy the fashions to SageMaker for use by generative AI functions:

  1. Deploy the Llama-2 7b chat mannequin to a SageMaker real-time endpoint.
  2. Deploy the BAAI/bge-small-en-v1.5 embeddings mannequin to a SageMaker real-time endpoint.
  3. Use the deployed fashions in your query answering generative AI functions.

Within the following sections, we stroll you thru the steps of implementing this answer in SageMaker Studio notebooks.


To comply with the steps on this publish, it’s essential to have an AWS account and an AWS Id and Entry Administration (IAM) function with permissions to create and entry the answer assets. In case you are new to AWS, see Create a standalone AWS account.

To make use of SageMaker Studio notebooks in your AWS account, you want a SageMaker area with a person profile that has permissions to launch the SageMaker Studio app. In case you are new to SageMaker Studio, the Fast Studio setup is the quickest solution to get began. With a single click on, SageMaker provisions the SageMaker area with default presets, together with organising the person profile, IAM function, IAM authentication, and public web entry. The pocket book for this publish assumes an ml.g5.2xlarge occasion kind. To assessment or improve your quota, open the AWS Service Quotas console, select AWS Providers within the navigation pane, select Amazon SageMaker, and consult with the worth for Studio KernelGateway apps working on ml.g5.2xlarge cases.

After confirming your quota restrict, it’s essential to full the dependencies to make use of Llama 2 7b chat.

Llama 2 7b chat is on the market below the Llama 2 license. To entry Llama 2 on Hugging Face, it’s essential to full a number of steps first:

  1. Create a Hugging Face account should you don’t have one already.
  2. Full the shape “Request entry to the following model of Llama” on the Meta web site.
  3. Request entry to Llama 2 7b chat on Hugging Face.

After you’ve been granted entry, you’ll be able to create a brand new entry token to entry fashions. To create an entry token, navigate to the Settings web page on the Hugging Face web site.

It’s good to have an account with Pinecone to make use of it as a vector database. Pinecone is on the market on AWS by way of the AWS Market. The Pinecone web site additionally provides the choice to create a free account that comes with permissions to create a single index, which is enough for the needs of this publish. To retrieve your Pinecone keys, open the Pinecone console and select API Keys.

Arrange the pocket book and atmosphere

To comply with the code on this publish, open SageMaker Studio and clone the next GitHub repository. Subsequent, open the pocket book studio-local-gen-ai/rag/RAG-with-Llama-2-on-Studio.ipynb and select the PyTorch 2.0.0 Python 3.10 GPU Optimized picture, Python 3 kernel, and ml.g5.2xlarge because the occasion kind. If that is your first time utilizing SageMaker Studio notebooks, consult with Create or Open an Amazon SageMaker Studio Pocket book.

To arrange the event atmosphere, it’s essential to set up the required Python libraries, as demonstrated within the following code:

%%writefile necessities.txt
speed up==0.21.0
!pip set up -U -r necessities.txt

Load the pre-trained mannequin and tokenizer

After you’ve imported the required libraries, you’ll be able to load the Llama-2 7b chat mannequin together with its corresponding tokenizers from Hugging Face. These loaded mannequin artifacts are saved within the native listing inside SageMaker Studio. This allows you to swiftly reload them into reminiscence at any time when it’s essential to resume your work at a special time.

import torch

from transformers import (
import transformers

tg_model_id = "meta-llama/Llama-2-7b-chat-hf" #the mannequin id in Hugging Face
tg_model_path = f"./tg_model/tg_model_id" #the native listing the place the mannequin will likely be saved

tg_model = AutoModelForCausalLM.from_pretrained(tg_model_id, token=hf_access_token,do_sample=True, use_safetensors=True, device_map="auto", torch_dtype=torch.float16
tg_tokenizer = AutoTokenizer.from_pretrained(tg_model_id, token=hf_access_token)

tg_model.save_pretrained(save_directory=tg_model_path, from_pt=True)
tg_tokenizer.save_pretrained(save_directory=tg_model_path, from_pt=True)

Ask a query that requires up-to-date info

Now you can begin utilizing the mannequin and ask questions. Llama-2 chat fashions count on the immediate to stick to the next format:

<s>[INST] <<SYS>>
 user_message  [/INST]

You should use the PromptTemplate from LangChain to create a recipe primarily based on the immediate format, as a way to simply create prompts going ahead:

from langchain import PromptTemplate

template = """<s>[INST] <<SYS>>nYou are an assistant for question-answering duties. You might be useful and pleasant. Use the next items of retrieved context to reply the question. If you do not know the reply, you simply say I do not know. Use three sentences most and preserve the reply concise.
query [/INST]
prompt_template = PromptTemplate( template=template, input_variables=['context','question'] )

Let’s ask the mannequin a query that wants latest info from 2023. You should use LangChain and particularly the LLMChain kind of chain and move as parameters the LLM, the immediate template you created earlier, and the query:

query = "When can I go to the AWS M&E Buyer Expertise Middle in New York Metropolis?"

tg_tokenizer.add_special_tokens( "pad_token": "[PAD]" )
tg_tokenizer.padding_side = "left"

tg_pipe = transformers.pipeline(process='text-generation', mannequin=tg_model, tokenizer=tg_tokenizer, num_return_sequences=1, eos_token_id=tg_tokenizer.eos_token_id, pad_token_id=tg_tokenizer.eos_token_id, max_new_tokens=400, temperature=0.7)

from langchain.chains import LLMChain
from langchain.llms import HuggingFacePipeline

llm=HuggingFacePipeline(pipeline=tg_pipe, model_kwargs='temperature':0.7)
llm_chain = LLMChain(llm=llm, immediate=prompt_template)
no_context_response = llm_chain.predict(context="", query=query)

We get the next generated reply:

Thanks for reaching out! The AWS M&E Buyer Expertise Middle in New York Metropolis is presently closed for visits because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Nonetheless, you’ll be able to verify their official web site or social media accounts for any updates on when the middle will reopen. Within the meantime, you’ll be able to discover their digital excursions and assets obtainable on-line.

Enhance the reply by including context to the immediate

The reply we generated will not be totally true. Let’s see if we are able to enhance it by offering some context. You’ll be able to add an extract from the publish AWS declares new M&E Buyer Expertise Middle in New York, which incorporates updates on the subject from 2023:

context = """Media and leisure (M&E) clients proceed to face challenges in creating extra content material, extra rapidly, and distributing it to extra endpoints than ever earlier than of their quest to please viewers globally. Amazon Internet Providers (AWS), together with AWS Companions, have showcased the fast evolution of M&E options for years at business occasions just like the Nationwide Affiliation of Broadcasters (NAB) Present and the Worldwide Broadcast Conference (IBC). Till now, AWS for M&E know-how demonstrations have been accessible on this method only a few weeks out of the 12 months. Clients are extra engaged than ever earlier than; they need to have larger high quality conversations concerning person expertise and media tooling. These conversations are greatest supported by having an interconnected answer structure for reference. Scheduling a go to of the M&E Buyer Expertise Middle will likely be obtainable beginning November thirteenth, please ship an e mail to AWS-MediaEnt-CXC@amazon.com."""

Use the LLMChain once more and move the previous textual content as context:

context_response = llm_chain.predict(context=context, query=query)

The brand new response solutions the query with up-to-date info:

You’ll be able to go to the AWS M&E Buyer Expertise Middle in New York Metropolis ranging from November thirteenth. Please ship an e mail to AWS-MediaEnt-CXC@amazon.com to schedule a go to.

Now we have confirmed that by including the best context, the mannequin’s efficiency is improved. Now you’ll be able to focus your efforts on discovering and including the best context for the query requested. In different phrases, implement RAG.

Implement RAG query answering with BGE embeddings and Pinecone

At this juncture, you have to resolve on the sources of knowledge to reinforce the mannequin’s information. These sources could possibly be inside webpages or paperwork inside your group, or publicly obtainable information sources. For the needs of this publish and for the sake of simplicity, we’ve got chosen two AWS Weblog posts revealed in 2023:

These posts are already obtainable as PDF paperwork within the information mission listing in SageMaker Studio for fast entry. To divide the paperwork into manageable chunks, you’ll be able to make use of the RecursiveCharacterTextSplitter methodology from LangChain:

from langchain.text_splitter import RecursiveCharacterTextSplitter
from langchain.document_loaders import PyPDFDirectoryLoader

loader = PyPDFDirectoryLoader("./information/")

paperwork = loader.load()

docs = text_splitter.split_documents(paperwork)

Subsequent, use the BGE embeddings mannequin bge-small-en created by the Beijing Academy of Synthetic Intelligence (BAAI) that’s obtainable on Hugging Face to generate the embeddings of those chunks. Obtain and save the mannequin within the native listing in Studio. We use fp32 in order that it could possibly run on the occasion’s CPU.

em_model_name = "BAAI/bge-small-en"
em_model_path = f"./em-model"

from transformers import AutoModel
# Load mannequin from HuggingFace Hub
em_model = AutoModel.from_pretrained(em_model_name,torch_dtype=torch.float32)
em_tokenizer = AutoTokenizer.from_pretrained(em_model_name,system="cuda")

# save mannequin to disk

Use the next code to create an embedding_generator operate, which takes the doc chunks as enter and generates the embeddings utilizing the BGE mannequin:

# Tokenize sentences
def tokenize_text(_input, system):
    return em_tokenizer(

# Run embedding process as a operate with mannequin and textual content sentences as enter
def embedding_generator(_input, normalize=True):
    # Compute token embeddings
    with torch.no_grad():
        embedded_output = em_model(
        sentence_embeddings = embedded_output[0][:, 0]
        # normalize embeddings
        if normalize:
            sentence_embeddings = torch.nn.purposeful.normalize(
    return sentence_embeddings[0, :].tolist()
sample_sentence_embedding = embedding_generator(docs[0].page_content)
print(f"Embedding dimension of the doc --->", len(sample_sentence_embedding))

On this publish, we reveal a RAG workflow utilizing Pinecone, a managed, cloud-native vector database that additionally provides an API for similarity search. You might be free to rewrite the next code to make use of your most popular vector database.

We initialize a Pinecone python consumer and create a brand new vector search index utilizing the embedding mannequin’s output size. We use LangChain’s built-in Pinecone class to ingest the embeddings we created within the earlier step. It wants three parameters: the paperwork to ingest, the embeddings generator operate, and the identify of the Pinecone index.

import pinecone
    api_key = os.environ["PINECONE_API_KEY"],
    atmosphere = os.environ["PINECONE_ENV"]
#verify if index already exists, if not we create it
index_name = "rag-index"
if index_name not in pinecone.list_indexes():
        dimension=len(sample_sentence_embedding), ## 384 for bge-small-en 

#insert the embeddings
from langchain.vectorstores import Pinecone
vector_store = Pinecone.from_documents(

With the Llama-2 7B chat mannequin loaded into reminiscence and the embeddings built-in into the Pinecone index, now you can mix these parts to reinforce Llama 2’s responses for our question-answering use case. To realize this, you’ll be able to make use of the LangChain RetrievalQA, which augments the preliminary immediate with essentially the most comparable paperwork from the vector retailer. By setting return_source_documents=True, you achieve visibility into the precise paperwork used to generate the reply as a part of the response, permitting you to confirm the accuracy of the reply.

from langchain.chains import RetrievalQA
import textwrap

#helper methodology to enhance the readability of the response
def print_response(llm_response):
    temp = [textwrap.fill(line, width=100) for line in llm_response['result'].cut up('n')]
    response="n".be part of(temp)
    print(f"llm_response['query']n nresponse'n n Supply Paperwork:")
    for supply in llm_response["source_documents"]:

llm_qa_chain = RetrievalQA.from_chain_type(
    llm=llm, #the Llama-2 7b chat mannequin
    retriever=vector_store.as_retriever(search_kwargs="ok": 2), # carry out similarity search in Pinecone
    return_source_documents=True, #present the paperwork that have been used to reply the query
    chain_type_kwargs="immediate": prompt_template

We get the next reply:

Q: When can I go to the AWS M&E Buyer Expertise Middle in New York Metropolis?

A: I’m blissful to assist! In response to the context, the AWS M&E Buyer Expertise Middle in New York Metropolis will likely be obtainable for visits beginning on November thirteenth. You’ll be able to ship an e mail to AWS-MediaEnt-CXC@amazon.com to schedule a go to.’

Supply Paperwork:

‘web page’: 4.0, ‘supply’: ‘information/AWS declares new M&E Buyer Expertise Middle in New York Metropolis _ AWS for M&E Weblog.pdf’

‘web page’: 2.0, ‘supply’: ‘information/AWS declares new M&E Buyer Expertise Middle in New York Metropolis _ AWS for M&E Weblog.pdf’

Let’s attempt a special query:

question2=" What number of awards have AWS Media Providers received in 2023?"

We get the next reply:

Q: What number of awards have AWS Media Providers received in 2023?

A: In response to the weblog publish, AWS Media Providers have received 5 business awards in 2023.’

Supply Paperwork:

‘web page’: 0.0, ‘supply’: ‘information/AWS Media Providers awarded business accolades _ AWS for M&E Weblog.pdf’

‘web page’: 1.0, ‘supply’: ‘information/AWS Media Providers awarded business accolades _ AWS for M&E Weblog.pdf’

After you’ve established a enough degree of confidence, you’ll be able to deploy the fashions to SageMaker endpoints for real-time inference. These endpoints are totally managed and supply help for auto scaling.

SageMaker provides massive mannequin inference utilizing Massive Mannequin Inference containers (LMIs), which we are able to make the most of to deploy our fashions. These containers come geared up with pre-installed open supply libraries like DeepSpeed, facilitating the implementation of performance-enhancing strategies comparable to tensor parallelism throughout inference. Moreover, they use DJLServing as a pre-built built-in mannequin server. DJLServing is a high-performance, common model-serving answer that provides help for dynamic batching and employee auto scaling, thereby growing throughput.

In our method, we use the SageMaker LMI with DJLServing and DeepSpeed Inference to deploy the Llama-2-chat 7b and BGE fashions to SageMaker endpoints working on ml.g5.2xlarge cases, enabling real-time inference. If you wish to comply with these steps your self, consult with the accompanying pocket book for detailed directions.

You’ll require two ml.g5.2xlarge cases for deployment. To assessment or improve your quota, open the AWS Service Quotas console, select AWS Providers within the navigation pane, select Amazon SageMaker, and consult with the worth for ml.g5.2xlarge for endpoint utilization.

The next steps define the method of deploying customized fashions for the RAG workflow on a SageMaker endpoint:

  • Deploy the Llama-2 7b chat mannequin to a SageMaker real-time endpoint working on an ml.g5.2xlarge occasion for quick textual content era.
  • Deploy the BAAI/bge-small-en-v1.5 embeddings mannequin to a SageMaker real-time endpoint working on an ml.g5.2xlarge occasion. Alternatively, you’ll be able to deploy your personal embedding mannequin.
  • Ask a query and use the LangChain RetrievalQA to enhance the immediate with essentially the most comparable paperwork from Pinecone, this time utilizing the mannequin deployed within the SageMaker real-time endpoint:
# convert your native LLM into SageMaker endpoint LLM
llm_sm_ep = SagemakerEndpoint(
    endpoint_name=tg_sm_model.endpoint_name, # <--- Your text-gen mannequin endpoint identify
        "temperature": 0.05, 
        "max_new_tokens": 512

llm_qa_smep_chain = RetrievalQA.from_chain_type(
    llm=llm_sm_ep,  # <--- This makes use of SageMaker Endpoint mannequin for inference
    retriever=vector_store.as_retriever(search_kwargs="ok": 2),
    chain_type_kwargs="immediate": prompt_template
  • Use LangChain to confirm that the SageMaker endpoint with the embedding mannequin works as anticipated in order that it may be used for future doc ingestion:
response_model = smr_client.invoke_endpoint(
    EndpointName=em_sm_model.endpoint_name, <--- Your embedding mannequin endpoint identify
        "textual content": "This can be a pattern textual content"

outputs = json.masses(response_model["Body"].learn().decode("utf8"))['outputs']

Clear up

Full the next steps to scrub up your assets:

  • When you’ve completed working in your SageMaker Studio pocket book, ensure you shut down the ml.g5.2xlarge occasion to keep away from any fees by selecting the cease icon. You may as well arrange lifecycle configuration scripts to robotically shut down assets when they don’t seem to be used.

  • In the event you deployed the fashions to SageMaker endpoints, run the next code on the finish of the pocket book to delete the endpoints:
#delete your textual content era endpoint
# delete your textual content embedding endpoint
  • Lastly, run the next line to delete the Pinecone index:


SageMaker notebooks present an easy solution to kickstart your journey with Retrieval Augmented Era. They help you experiment interactively with varied fashions, configurations, and questions with out spinning up further infrastructure. On this publish, we confirmed improve the efficiency of Llama 2 7b chat in a query answering use case utilizing LangChain, the BGE embeddings mannequin, and Pinecone. To get began, launch SageMaker Studio and run the pocket book obtainable within the following GitHub repo. Please share your ideas within the feedback part!

Concerning the authors

Anastasia Tzeveleka is a Machine Studying and AI Specialist Options Architect at AWS. She works with clients in EMEA and helps them architect machine studying options at scale utilizing AWS companies. She has labored on initiatives in several domains together with Pure Language Processing (NLP), MLOps and Low Code No Code instruments.

Pranav Murthy is an AI/ML Specialist Options Architect at AWS. He focuses on serving to clients construct, prepare, deploy and migrate machine studying (ML) workloads to SageMaker. He beforehand labored within the semiconductor business creating massive pc imaginative and prescient (CV) and pure language processing (NLP) fashions to enhance semiconductor processes. In his free time, he enjoys enjoying chess and touring.

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